Bootloader Grub for modern EFI and UEFI computers: how to re-install it


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Note: This how-to isn't meant for installing Linux Mint, but only for repairing bootloader Grub of an existing installation on such a computer. For installing Linux Mint on such a computer you can use this other how-to *click*.

A modern computer with a pre-installed Windows 10 or 11 has EFI or UEFI BIOS, that's running in full UEFI mode. On such a computer you might, after a successful installation of Linux Mint, suddenly lose the possibility to boot Linux Mint.

For example this might happen because you've reset your UEFI to its defaults, or because you've upgraded your UEFI to a later version. Or because Windows Update has bluntly overwritten Grub by an updated bootmgr/winload.exe (which is the Windows bootloader).

Thankfully this problem is not difficult to solve. Provided that you apply the how-to below, with exact precision.

Note: this how-to is only fit for modern motherboards that run on UEFI in full UEFI mode. This is usually the case for computers that were sold with a pre-installed Windows 8, 10 or 11.

But this how-to is definitely unfit for older motherboards that run on an old-fashioned BIOS. This usually means a computer that was sold with a pre-installed Windows 7, Vista or Windows XP.

The how-to for old-fashioned BIOS can be found here.


A computer that's running in full UEFI mode, usually is a computer with a pre-installed Windows 10 or 11 (64 bit edition). The how-to below is therefore based on a 64-bit Linux Mint, that has suddenly "disappeared" from a dual boot machine that also has Windows 10 or 11 on it.

This is how you do it:

1. Boot your computer from the 64-bit Mint DVD (or the live USB memory stick with Mint on it).

Note: Only use the memory stick or DVD of the Mint version that you wish to repair. So for Linux Mint 21, use the DVD or USB stick of 21. For repairing Ubuntu 22.04 and higher, use Mint 21, which is identical to Ubuntu 22.04 "under the hood".

2. Connect to the internet. Wireless or wired, that doesn't matter. But you need internet connection.

3. From the menu of Mint, launch the application Boot Repair. It'll request to update itself; allow that. Afterwards re-launch it and ignore any new update requests.

4. Go with the flow: let it perform a boot repair attempt with the recommended default settings. Ignore a potential error report at the end, about a locked NVRAM.

5. Reboot normally. Your Mint might now be called Ubuntu in the Grub bootloader menu; you should be able to correct that by running sudo update-grub (note the dash between update and grub!) in the terminal (you can launch a terminal window like this: *Click*).

6. Still can't boot your Mint? Then the EFI line of Mint has probably been wiped from the EFI System Partition, which occasionally happens after a BIOS update (blame your hardware manufacturer....). Check the BIOS settings to verify this (the boot order should contain an item called Ubuntu).

If it's missing, that should be solvable like this:

7. Boot again from the Mint live USB. In the live session, launch a terminal window.
(You can launch a terminal window like this: *Click*)

8. Check how your hard disk is called. It's usually either sda or, in case of a NVME SSD, nvme0n1. For checking, launch the application Disks (gnome-disks), which should help you to identify the disk name. The two black arrows in the screenshot below, are pointing to the disk name (click on the image to enlarge it):



9. For a disk called /dev/sda, use copy/paste to transfer the following command line into the terminal:

sudo efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sda -p 1 -l \\efi\\ubuntu\\grubx64.efi -L "Linux Mint"

Press Enter.

For a disk called /dev/nvme0n1, use copy/paste to transfer the following command line into the terminal:

sudo efibootmgr -c -d /dev/nvme0n1 -p 1 -l \\efi\\ubuntu\\grubx64.efi -L "Linux Mint"

Press Enter.

10. Re-launch Boot Repair and proceed like before.

11. Reboot normally. Your Mint might be called Ubuntu in the Grub bootloader menu; you should be able to correct that by running sudo update-grub (note the dash between update and grub!) in the terminal.


Want more tips?

Do you want more tips and tweaks? There's a lot more of them on this website!

For example:

Speed up your Linux Mint!

Clean your Linux Mint safely

Avoid 10 fatal mistakes


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